Adolph Luetgert: Chicago’s Sausage King

The public was fascinated by the disappearance of Louisa Luetgert, wife of sausage manufacturer, Adolph Luetgert.  When authorities suggested he had disposed of her body in his sausage plant, the nation’s imagination went wild…and sausage sales took a huge hit.

Works Cited

“The Sausage Vat Murder.” Chamblee54, 21 Jan. 2020, chamblee54.wordpress.com/2020/01/21/the-sausage-vat-murder/.
“Action Line.” Chicago Tribune, 20 June 1981, p. 68.
“The Sausage Vat Murder.” Chamblee54, 21 Jan. 2020, chamblee54.wordpress.com/2020/01/21/the-sausage-vat-murder/.
“The Sausage Vat Murder.” Chamblee54, 21 Jan. 2020, chamblee54.wordpress.com/2020/01/21/the-sausage-vat-murder/.
“The Sausage Vat Murder.” Chamblee54, 21 Jan. 2020, chamblee54.wordpress.com/2020/01/21/the-sausage-vat-murder/.

“Action Line.” Chicago Tribune, 20 June 1981, p. 68.

“Experiement That May Determine His Guilt or Innocence.” The Buffalo Times, 7 Aug. 1897, p. 1.

“Jury Unable to Agree.” The Deadwood Evening Independent, 22 Oct. 1897, p. 1.

Loerzel, Robert. Alchemy of Bones: Adolph Luetgert, www.alchemyofbones.com/who/luetgertfamily/adolph.htm.

“Luetgert Denies It.” Chicago Tribune, 23 Jan. 1898, p. 4.

“Luetgert’s Stained Knife.” The New York Times, 9 Sept. 1897, p. 5.

Schechter, Harold. “The ‘Sausage Vat Murder,” 1897.” The Yale Review, 26 Jan. 2020, yalereview.yale.edu/sausage-vat-murder-1897.

“The Sausage Vat Murder.” Chamblee54, 21 Jan. 2020, chamblee54.wordpress.com/2020/01/21/the-sausage-vat-murder/.

USGenWeb Archives – Census Wills Deeds Genealogy, files.usgwarchives.net/il/cook/court/fischer62nwl.txt.

Fiblett #1: Season 2

In this first Fiblett of season 2,  Laura reads articles that may or may not have appeared in Chicago area newspapers of the past.  It’s up to you to decide which of the articles are Fact or Fiction.  Ready to play?

Tillie Klimek: The Black Widow of Little Poland

The first episode of Fact or Fiction’s second season features Tillie Klimek, the black widow of Little Poland.  In 1922, Tillie was arrested for poisoning her husband with a steady diet of arsenic-laced stew.  Investigators soon discovered there was more to the story of the woman renowned in her community for cooking a killer stew and predicting impending deaths.

 

McNamara, Joseph. “Black-Widow Killings.” New York Daily News. 13 September 1992, p. 31.

Monroe, Heather. “The Strange Murders of Tillie Klimek.” Medium, Medium, 14 Nov. 2019, heathermonroe.medium.com/the-strange-murders-of-tillie-klimek-effa70912b5b.

Tillie Klimek is pictured above.  I like this picture of her.

Monroe, Heather. “The Strange Murders of Tillie Klimek.” Medium, Medium, 14 Nov. 2019, heathermonroe.medium.com/the-strange-murders-of-tillie-klimek-effa70912b5b.

 

Works Cited

Blanco, Juan Ignacio. “Tillie Klimek: Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of Murderers.” Tillie Klimek | Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of Murderers, murderpedia.org/female.K/k/klimek-tillie.htm.

Chermak, Steven and Frankie Y. Bailey. Crimes of the Centuries:  Notorious Crimes, Criminals, and Criminal Trials in American History. ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2016.

Estephe, St. Wholesale Killer of Husbands & Cousins : Tillie Klimek (Gbrurek) – 1922, 1 Jan. 1970, unknownmisandry.blogspot.com/2011/09/wholesale-killer-of-husbands-cousins.html.

“Hostess at Poison Banquets Gets Life for Her Crimes.” New York Daily News, 5 July 1925, p. 20.

“In Poison Case.” The Knoxville News, 17 November, 1922, p. 2.

“Jozef ‘Joseph’ Mitkiewecz.” geni_family_tree, 15 Jan. 2018, www.geni.com/people/Jozef-Joseph-Mitkiewecz/6000000074082231048.

Martin, Alison. “This Week in History: Chicago Serial Killer Tillie Klimek Dies in Prison.” Times, Chicago Sun-Times, 19 Nov. 2020, chicago.suntimes.com/2020/11/19/21563154/this-week-in-history-tillie-klimek-chicago-serial-killer.

McBride, Clare. “Chicago’s ‘Mrs. Bluebeard,’ Tillie Klimek.” SYFY WIRE, SYFY WIRE, 15 Oct. 2020, www.syfy.com/syfywire/chicagos-mrs-bluebeard-tillie-klimek.

McNamara, Joseph. “Black-Widow Killings.” New York Daily News. 13 September 1992, p. 31.

Monroe, Heather. “The Strange Murders of Tillie Klimek.” Medium, Medium, 14 Nov. 2019, heathermonroe.medium.com/the-strange-murders-of-tillie-klimek-effa70912b5b.

“Mystery Deaths in Poison Case May Reach 20.” Chicago Tribune. 14 November 1922, p. 3.

“Ottilie ‘Tillie’ Gburek KlimekHeather MO (1876-1936) – Find…” Find a Grave, www.findagrave.com/memorial/101602851/ottilie-klimek.

Selzer, Adam. “Tillie Klimek’s Many Victims (with Pictures).” Mysterious Chicago Tours, 16 Nov. 2015, mysteriouschicago.com/tillie-klimeks-many-victims-with-pictures/.

Swasko, Mick. “Tales from the Windy City.” Chicago Tribune, 20 October 2014, p. 33 – 36.

“Three Sons, Daughter Testify Against ‘Poison Cousin.’”  Chicago Tribune. 10 April 1923, p. 3.

The Murder of Amos Stillwell

In the early hours of December 30, 1888, Mrs. Amos Stillwell ran from the mansion she shared with her husband and young children to request help from her neighbors.  Startled to see the respectable Mrs. Stillwell in her nightclothes and even more startled by her story, the neighbors returned with her to her home to find a grizzly scene—the dead body of her much older husband, Mrs. Amos Stillwell.  Someone had used an ax to murder him in his bed.  The identity of the villain behind this murder remains a mystery—in spite of multiple inquests and one sensational trial, no one was ever convicted.

All of the above images appeared in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch.
“Dr. Hearne and Wife in Palmyra Jail.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 18 August 1895, p. 1-2.

This photograph of Dr. Hearne is taken from The Columbia Tribune online.
Montgomery, Mary Lou. “History in Hannibal: Doctor with Tainted Reputation well severed the Hannibal populace.” Columbia Daily Tribune., 4 August 2018.

These illustrations show the jury watching Nat Dryden burn matches and Dr. and Mrs. Hearne at the trial. Notice that Dr. and Mrs. Hearne appear to have aged a great deal since Amos’s death. “Burning Matches Brought a Verdict.” The Kansas City Star. 14 January 1934, p. 27.

Works Cited

“Burning Matches Brought a Verdict.” The Kansas City Star. 14 January 1934, p. 27.

Dawson, Minnie T. “The Stillwell Murder or a Society Crime.” McMein Printing Co., May 1907. http://hannibal.lib.mo.us/digital/stillwell/stillwell.htm

“Dr. and Mrs. Hearne Indicted in Missouri.” San Francisco Chronicle, 18 August 1895, p. 11.

“Doctor and Mrs. Hearne Indicted.”  Mexico Weekly Ledger. 22 August 1895, p. 2.

“Dr. Hearne and Wife in Palmyra Jail.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 18 August 1895, p. 1-2.

“Indicted for the Stillwell Murder.” Genoa Junction Journal. 21 August 1895, p. 8.

“Mrs. Fannie C. Stillwell.” The Western North Carolina Times. 15 April 1921, p. 4.

Montgomery, Mary Lou. “History in Hannibal: Doctor with Tainted Reputation well severed the Hannibal populace.” Columbia Daily Tribune., 4 August 2018. https://www.columbiatribune.com/news/20180804/history-in-hannibal-doctor-with-tainted-reputation-well-served-hannibal-populace

Ruscin, Terry. “Stillwell Left Imprint Across Southeast.” Blue Ridge Now, 10 July 2016. https://www.blueridgenow.com/lifestyle/20160710/stillwell-left-imprint-across-southeast

“The Hannibal Mystery.” St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 19 July 1895, p. 6.

“The Stillwell Case.” The Philipsburg Mail. 20 June 1895, p. 2.

 “The Stillwell Murder.” Mexico Weekly Ledger. 24 January 1889, p. 1.

“The Stillwell Murder.” Murder by Gaslight. 17 November, 2018. http://www.murderbygaslight.com/2018/11/the-stillwell-murder.html

 “Strong Evidence Against Hearne.” San Francisco Chronicle. 15 December 1895, p. 24.

 “Was Dr. Fred Vernette’s Testimony in Stillwell Murder Case in 1895 the Truth or Revenge?” https://www.maryloumontgomery.com/single-post/2016/09/09/Was-Dr-Fred-Vernette’s-testimony-in-Stillwell-murder-case-in-1895-the-truth-or-revenge.

Fiblett #4: Lovebirds Fly the Coop

Choice #1 about the attempted elopement of nineteen year old Cleo Broadhurst and his married lover Mrs. C. J. Ware appeared under the title of “Eloping Boy Slept on the Job” in The Kansas City Times on 22 September, 1910, p. 1.

Choice #2 was the story of two sisters who ran away together with their boyfriends. It was printed on October 12, 1884 in the St. Louis Globe Democrat as “Double Elopement from Boonville.”

Choice #3, “Heiress Weds Penniless Musician, debuted on the Fact or Fiction Podcast on September 4, 2020. I wrote this one based on a number of articles from the era like it. Lots of heiress ran away with unsuitable men.

Choice #4 outlines a the scandalous affair of Emma Stockton Norton and Henry W. Moore, good friend of Emma’s husband. Moore was also married.

Thanks for playing!

Nellie Muench: Socialite, Kidnapper, and Con Artist

During the 1930’s kidnappings were a common occurrence, and wealthy St. Louisans were prime targets for criminals interested in collecting ransom. One dark and stormy night in 1931, a wealthy and respected St. Louis doctor was abducted and held for over a week. Although no request was made for ransom, he was released unharmed and returned to his family. No one was arrested in connection with this crime. Three years later, a down-on-his-luck tavern owner identified the perpetrators behind the crime, one of whom was a highly respected woman of St. Louis society. Listen to today’s episode of Fact or Fiction as I tell this crazy and mostly true story to my friend Tracy. Listen carefully because it’s more difficult than you think to recognize Fact or Fiction.

Note: I mispronounced Muench as Moonch. I apologize–it’s apparently pronounced Minch–rhymes with pinch. Oops! You can find more information on this at the following website:

https://www.muenchfamilyassociation.com/notorious-nellie.html

This is a photo of Doctor Kelley wearing his “blacked-out” goggles upon his release.
“Doctor Kelley Released to Post-Dispatch Man.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 28 April 1931, p. 1, 2, 6.
I love this picture of Nellie Muench and one of her prize dogs.
“Mrs. Nellie Muench Indicted with Convict and Gangsters on Charge of Kidnapping Dr. Kelley.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 13 March 1934, p. 1, 3.
This picture of Nellie Muench and her accomplices in the kidnapping appeared in newspapers after her arrest.
“Mrs. Nellie Muench Indicted with Convict and Gangsters on Charge of Kidnapping Dr. Kelley.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 13 March 1934, p. 1, 3.
I’m sure Nellie preferred this picture to the mugshot photos the newspapers published earlier.
“Mrs. Muench Comes In and Is Released on Bond of $50,000.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 15 March 1934, p. 1-2.
Here’s another newspaper photo showing Nellie Muench on her way to court for the Baby Hoax trials.
“Doctor Who Said Mrs. Muench Bore Child Never Examined Her; Another Held as Forger.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 25 September 1935, p. 1, 3.
Introducing Judge Ernest M. Tipton, Nellie’s brother. He stood by her side during the kidnapping trial.
“Prosecution Leaves the Question of Penalty Up to the Jury.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 4 October 1935, p. 3A.

Works Cited

 “A Great Runner of 1909 Runs Another Great Race in 1932.” The Kansas City Star, 14 August 1932, p. 31-32.

“Attorney Sues Mitzi Shop Owner for $10,000 Loan.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 21 May 1928, p. 5.

“Bail for Mrs. Muench Opposed; She and Indicted Gangsters Leave Town.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 14 March 1934, p. 1, 3.

“Commissioner Limbaugh Brands Jones Perjurer; Calls for Prosecution.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 24 October 1935.

“Details of Rebuttal Testimony Offered by State Yesterday; Attempt to Shake Alibi.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 4 October 1934, p. 4A.

“Doctor Kelley Released to Post-Dispatch Man.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 28 April 1931, p. 1, 2, 6.

“Dr. Muench Admitted Worthless Nature of Birth Statement by Drs. Pitzman and Thompson.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 18 October 1935, p. 1, 3-4.

“Dr. Muench Files Suit for Divorce, Petition Secret.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 4 July 1943, p. 1.

“Doctor Who Said Mrs. Muench Bore Child Never Examined Her; Another Held as Forger.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 25 September 1935, p. 1, 3.

“Early Trial Probable for Mrs. Muench.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 16 March 1934, p. 3.

“Ernest M. Tipton, Chief Justice of Missouri, Dies.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 25 February 1955, p. 7.

“Final Arguments on Rosegrant; State’s Attack on the Defense Alibi.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 5 October 1934, p. 4.

“How Nellie Muench Was Caught in Her Own Trap.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 28 February 1937, p. 80.

Krugman, Andrew. “Fear of Eating.” New York Times, late ed., 21 May 2007, p. A1.

Linzee, David. Infamous St. Louis Crimes and Mysteries.  Palmerson and Reed Publishing, 2001.

“L. O. Muench Weds Miss Nellie Tipton.” The Evening Missourian, 30 October 1911, p. 1.

“Mrs. Muench at Jefferson City, Attorney Says.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 14 April 1944, p. 3A.

“Mrs. Muench Comes In and Is Released on Bond of $50,000.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 15 March 1934, p. 1-2.

“Mrs. Nellie Muench Indicted with Convict and Gangsters on Charge of Kidnapping Dr. Kelley.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 13 March 1934, p. 1, 3.

“Missouri Men Making Good as Coaches.”  The Evening Missourian, 23 October 1914, p. 6.

“Motive of Baby Hoax Was to Hold Love of Physician.” The Maryville Daily Forum, 23 December 1936, p. 1.

“Muench Quartet Is Anxious to Go to Prison, Lacy Says.” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 31 January 1937, p. 3.

“Nellie Tipton Muench Singing in Choir at Federal Reformatory.” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 11 July 1943.

“No Trace Found of Doctor Named by Mrs. Muench.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 14 April 1936, p. 4A.

Notorious Nellie. (n.d.). Retrieved August 27, 2020, from https://www.muenchfamilyassociation.com/notorious-nellie.html

“Pair to Be Brought Back from Chicago.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 14 November 1925, p. 2.

“Prosecution Leaves the Question of Penalty Up to the Jury.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 4 October 1935, p. 3A.

“Replevins $7,000 in Jewelry Pawned by Mitzi Shop Owner.” 30 April 1928, p. 3.

 “Rosegrant Plans to Seek Bail in Supreme Court.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 29 March 1934, p. 6.

Shinkle, Florence. “Saga of the Baby Hoax.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 24 January 1983, p. 33.

Shinkle, Florence. “’The Strangest Female Personality’ of a St. Louis Era.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 23 January 1983, p. 135.

“Tipton, Ernest M. Papers | Harry S. Truman.” Www.Trumanlibrary.Gov, www.trumanlibrary.gov/library/personal-papers/ernest-m-tipton-papers. Accessed 27 Aug. 2020.

“Witness Testifies of Another Lawyer Visiting Muench Home.” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 3 October 1935, p. 1.

Fiblett #3

Choice #1:  Pistol Practice is about saloon owner John Howard shooting his business partner Col. Burroughs when Burroughs complained about possible mismanagement of the saloon.  Howard claimed self-defense, but all other witnesses said he shot the Col. in cold blood.  This appeared in The St. Joseph Gazette on September 7, 1875.

Choice #2:  Final Witness in Trial is the sensational story of the elderly doctor who was to give testimony in his own defense in the murder trial where he was accused of killing his daughter-in-law. This is the story I wrote. It’s based on an article I found about a trial in Chicago from 1934, but I embellished it. If you guessed this as the fiction, congratulations!

Choice #3:  They Fought to Kill is the story of two drunken brothers who attempted to murder one another forcing their elderly mother to endanger her own life by traveling in the cold night to seek help from the authorities.  This article appeared in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch on February 13, 1899.

And Choice #4:  Shot By a Burglar is the story of a former Illinois congressman who interrupted a burglar attempting to steal his pants. This article appeared in the St. Louis Globe-Democract on March 18, 1890.

As always, thanks for listening!

The Missouri Kid

On a cold December evening in 1902, two good-looking young men robbed a Union, Missouri Bank and escaped with an estimated $15,000 worth of loot. When Pinkerton detective Charles Schumacher tracked them down, the young thieves brutally murdered him and became two of the most hunted and most celebrated criminals of the time. Follow along as I tell the story of their crimes and their capture to Joe, a retired DEA special agent. Listen carefully, because as always, it’s tough to know if what I say is FACT OR FICTION.

Drawing of William Rudolph
Both of the above drawings of Rudolph and Collins appeared shortly after they were found guilty.

“William Rudolph Guilty of Murder.”  The Crawford Mirror. March 31, 1904.
This is yet another drawing of Rudolph. He enjoyed the celebrity.
“Bank Robber Tells His Own Story.” The St. Louis Republic, March 15, 1903

“Like Missouri Bandit Days.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch. December 29, 1902.
This is the picture Joe described as looking like Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid.

“Rudolph and Lewis, Union Bank Robbers, Taken by Pinkertons at Hartford, Conn.” The St. Louis Republic, March 2, 1903.
This is a photograph of William Rudolph. I believe it is the mugshot from Kansas that led Pinkerton detectives to find Rudolph after his escape from St. Louis.

“Rudolph Found in Kansas Penitentiary; Serving Term for Robbery at Louisburg.” The St. Louis Republic, February 14, 1904.
This is a drawing of Pinkerton Detective Charles J. Schumacher who was murdered by William Rudolph and George Lewis.

“Escape and Pursuit of the Union Bank Robbers.” The St. Louis Republic, 1 February 1903, p. 25.
 

Rudolph and Lewis are shown shackled as they travel from Connecticut to Missouri.

“How the Union Bank Robbers Who Killed Detective Schumacher Are Being Brought Back to Missouri.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 10 March, 1903, p. 1.

This is the diagram of Rudolph’s escape route from the secure St. Louis jail.

“300 Dollar Reward for Capture of Rudolph.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, July 7, 1903.
I found a lot of great information in this book, and I highly recommend it. There’s also a companion website www.historicalcrimedetective.com.

Citations

“$300 Reward for Capture of Rudolph.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 7 July, 1903, p. 9.

Alexander, R., 2020. 10 Exciting Adventures Of The Pinkertons. [online] Toptenz.net. Available at: <https://www.toptenz.net/10-exciting-adventures-of-the-pinkertons.php> [Accessed 22 July 2020].

“Bank Robber Bill Rudolph Tells His Own Life Story.” The St. Louis Republic, 15 March, 1903, p. 1.

Chan, Amy. “Even the Mother of the Missouri Kid Admitted He Was ‘Always a Bad Boy’.” HistoryNet, HistoryNet, 11 Aug. 2017, www.historynet.com/even-mother-missouri-kid-admitted-always-bad-boy.htm.

“Collins Executed: Rudolph Hangs May 13.” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 March, 1904, p. 9.

“Collins Makes Last Confession.” The St. Louis Republic, 26 March, 1904, p. 1.

“Commuted His Sentence.” Bonner Springs-Edwardsville Chieftain, 25 February 1904, p. 1.

Desmond, William. “The Camera Never Lies.” Volume I Companion Page for Vintage True Crime Stories – HistoricalCrimeDetective.com, Historical True Crime Detective Jason Lucky Morrow, www.historicalcrimedetective.com/vtcs/volume1/.

“Desperado George Collins Gets a Brief Respite from the Rope.” The Tacoma Times, 11 March, 1904, p. 4.

“Detective’s Slayer Swings to Eternity.” The Salt Lake Tribune, 9 March, 1905, p. 3.

 “Dockery Gives a 15-Day Reprieve.” Vicksburg Evening Post, 11 March, 1904, p. 1.

“Like Missouri Bandit Days.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 29 December, 1902, p. 1.

“Murderer and Bank Robber.” The Capital Journal (Salem, Oregon), 11 March, 1904, p. 6.

“One Woman, Curious, Stands at Scaffold as Rudolph Hangs.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 8 May, 1905, p. 1.

“Rudolph Found in Kansas Penitentiary Serving Term for Robbery at Louisburg.” The St. Louis Republic, 14 February, 1904, p. 1.

“Rudolph and Lewis, Union Bank Robbers, Taken by Pinkertons at Hartford, Conn.” The St. Louis Republic, 2 March, 1903, p. 1.

“Two Bank Burglars.” Hartford Courant (Hartford, Connecticut), 2 March, 1903, p. 1.

“William Rudolph Guilty of Murder.” Crawford Mirror (Steelville, Missouri), 31 March, 1904, p. 6.

 “William Rudolph Guilty of Murder.” Ironton County Register, 31 March, 1904, p. 1.

Wood, Larry. “It’s All in the Past: ‘The Missouri Kid’.” The Rolla Daily News – Rolla, MO, The Rolla Daily News – Rolla, MO, 6 Feb. 2016, www.therolladailynews.com/article/20160205/NEWS/160209301.

Fiblett #2

  1. This story of the murder of Miss Jane Brunot appeared in the April 22, 1899 edition of the Herald and Review out of Decator, Illinois. One fun note is that Miss Jane Brunot who was described as elderly was, according to another article, forty-five years old!
  2. The story of the the Albright brothers who were brought to a St. Louis jail for safekeeping appeared in January 23,  1897 edition of The News Boy, Benton, Missouri’s newspaper.
  3. An Unnatural Crime appeared in the June 20, 1895 page one of The Palmyra Spectator.
  4. Macintosh Offers No Defense for Senseless Murder appeared no where in no newspapers! This was created by Laura Shimel for the sole purpose of distracting from the true crime articles! If you chose this as the fiction, then you win! Great work!

The Case of the Murdered Mayor

On November 20, 1885, former East St. Louis mayor John B. Bowman was gunned down as he crossed the street to his home. neighbors soon discovered his body. The shooter had disappeared, and the crime remains unsolved to this day. In this episode of Fact or Fiction, I identify potential suspects and motives. Who and why would someone want to kill the 51-year-old prominent politician of the large riverside city? As always, what we’ll learn about the facts is stranger than fiction.

This drawing appeared in the papers shortly after Bowman was found murdered. “A Bloody Crime: Ex-Mayor John B. Bowman of East St. Louis Cruelly Assassinated .” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 21 Nov. 1885.
Images of Ex-Mayor John B. Bowman, George Voice who was accused of Bowman’s murder, and Thomas Furlong who was the detective who accused Voice and tricked him into arrest.

“The Bowman Murder.” St. Louis Daily Globe-Democrat, 12 Feb. 1887.

Citations

“Across the Creek.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1 Aug. 1878.

“All Serene.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 3 July 1878.

“Arthur Arbuthnt.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 21 Sept. 1886.

“At It Again.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 30 July 1878.

“Beaten, But By Whom?” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 31 Aug. 1888.

“Belleville: Evidence Accumaleted.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 26 Feb. 1887.

“Belleville: The Bowman Murder Trial Goes Over to April 11.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 24 Mar. 1887.

“A Bloody Crime: Ex-Mayor John B. Bowman of East St. Louis Cruelly Assissinated .” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 21 Nov. 1885.

“The Bowman Murder, Another East St. Louis Policeman Arrested.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 23 Feb. 1887.

“The Bowman Murder.” St. Louis Daily Globe-Democrat, 12 Feb. 1887.

“The Bowman Murder: Strange Confession.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 14 Sept. 1886.

“Bowman’s Assassin: No Trace.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 23 Nov. 1885.

“East St. Louis.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 20 Feb. 1890.

“East St. Louis: John B. Bowman at Last Steps Down and Out.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 3 Apr. 1879.

“East St. Louis: Sensational Damage Suit.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 19 Jan. 1888.

“East St. Lousi 1865 – 1915.” St. Louis Daily Globe-Democrat, 4 Apr. 1915.

“A Family Slander Case.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 16 Sept. 1890.

“Frank B. Bowman Dies.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 17 July 1935.

“He Is Not Wanted.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 6 Oct. 1890.

“History .” Early History of East St. Louis and Cahokia, www.museum.state.il.us/RiverWeb/landings/Ambot/Archives/fwp/EarlyHistory.html.

“In Court.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 23 Feb. 1892.

Keen, Tomas, et al. “Illinois Town of 26,000 Has Nation’s Highest Murder Rate.” The Crime Report, 21 Aug. 2019, thecrimereport.org/2019/04/24/e-st-louis-il-has-the-nations-highest-murder-rate/.

Kirchherr, Jim, director. East St. Louis: Made in the USA. KETC Channel 9, 2003, www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqiJrJPOJKw.

“Mayor Bowman’s Will.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 20 Jan. 1886.

“The Prisoners Discharged.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1887.

Theising, Andrew J., and Debra H. Moore. Made in USA: East St. Louis, the Rise and Fall of an Industrial River Town. Virginia Publishing, 2003.

“A Truce.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 26 July 1878.

“Young People Saw Ghost.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 4 Apr. 1901.