In the early hours of December 30, 1888, Mrs. Amos Stillwell ran from the mansion she shared with her husband and young children to request help from her neighbors. Startled to see the respectable Mrs. Stillwell in her nightclothes and even more startled by her story, the neighbors returned with her to her home to find a grizzly scene—the dead body of her much older husband, Mrs. Amos Stillwell. Someone had used an ax to murder him in his bed. The identity of the villain behind this murder remains a mystery—in spite of multiple inquests and one sensational trial, no one was ever convicted.
These illustrations show the jury watching Nat Dryden burn matches and Dr. and Mrs. Hearne at the trial. Notice that Dr. and Mrs. Hearne appear to have aged a great deal since Amos’s death. “Burning Matches Brought a Verdict.” The Kansas City Star. 14 January 1934, p. 27.
“Burning Matches Brought a Verdict.” The Kansas City Star. 14 January 1934, p. 27.
During the 1930’s kidnappings were a common occurrence, and wealthy St. Louisans were prime targets for criminals interested in collecting ransom. One dark and stormy night in 1931, a wealthy and respected St. Louis doctor was abducted and held for over a week. Although no request was made for ransom, he was released unharmed and returned to his family. No one was arrested in connection with this crime. Three years later, a down-on-his-luck tavern owner identified the perpetrators behind the crime, one of whom was a highly respected woman of St. Louis society. Listen to today’s episode of Fact or Fiction as I tell this crazy and mostly true story to my friend Tracy. Listen carefully because it’s more difficult than you think to recognize Fact or Fiction.
Note: I mispronounced Muench as Moonch. I apologize–it’s apparently pronounced Minch–rhymes with pinch. Oops! You can find more information on this at the following website:
On a cold December evening in 1902, two good-looking young men robbed a Union, Missouri Bank and escaped with an estimated $15,000 worth of loot. When Pinkerton detective Charles Schumacher tracked them down, the young thieves brutally murdered him and became two of the most hunted and most celebrated criminals of the time. Follow along as I tell the story of their crimes and their capture to Joe, a retired DEA special agent. Listen carefully, because as always, it’s tough to know if what I say is FACT OR FICTION.
Rudolph and Lewis are shown shackled as they travel from Connecticut to Missouri.
“How the Union Bank Robbers Who Killed Detective Schumacher Are Being Brought Back to Missouri.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 10 March, 1903, p. 1.
“$300 Reward for Capture of Rudolph.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 7 July, 1903, p. 9.
Alexander, R., 2020. 10 Exciting Adventures Of The Pinkertons. [online] Toptenz.net. Available at: <https://www.toptenz.net/10-exciting-adventures-of-the-pinkertons.php> [Accessed 22 July 2020].
“Bank Robber Bill Rudolph Tells His Own Life Story.” The St. Louis Republic, 15 March, 1903, p. 1.
Chan, Amy. “Even the Mother of the Missouri Kid Admitted He Was ‘Always a Bad Boy’.” HistoryNet, HistoryNet, 11 Aug. 2017, www.historynet.com/even-mother-missouri-kid-admitted-always-bad-boy.htm.
“Collins Executed: Rudolph Hangs May 13.” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27 March, 1904, p. 9.
“Collins Makes Last Confession.” The St. Louis Republic, 26 March, 1904, p. 1.
“Commuted His Sentence.” Bonner Springs-Edwardsville Chieftain, 25 February 1904, p. 1.
Desmond, William. “The Camera Never Lies.” Volume I Companion Page for Vintage True Crime Stories – HistoricalCrimeDetective.com, Historical True Crime Detective Jason Lucky Morrow, www.historicalcrimedetective.com/vtcs/volume1/.
“Desperado George Collins Gets a Brief Respite from the Rope.” The Tacoma Times, 11 March, 1904, p. 4.
“Detective’s Slayer Swings to Eternity.” The Salt Lake Tribune, 9 March, 1905, p. 3.
“Dockery Gives a 15-Day Reprieve.” Vicksburg Evening Post, 11 March, 1904, p. 1.
“Like Missouri Bandit Days.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 29 December, 1902, p. 1.
“Murderer and Bank Robber.” The Capital Journal (Salem, Oregon), 11 March, 1904, p. 6.
“One Woman, Curious, Stands at Scaffold as Rudolph Hangs.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 8 May, 1905, p. 1.
“Rudolph Found in Kansas Penitentiary Serving Term for Robbery at Louisburg.” The St. Louis Republic, 14 February, 1904, p. 1.
“Rudolph and Lewis, Union Bank Robbers, Taken by Pinkertons at Hartford, Conn.” The St. Louis Republic, 2 March, 1903, p. 1.
“Two Bank Burglars.” Hartford Courant (Hartford, Connecticut), 2 March, 1903, p. 1.
“William Rudolph Guilty of Murder.” Crawford Mirror (Steelville, Missouri), 31 March, 1904, p. 6.
“William Rudolph Guilty of Murder.” Ironton County Register, 31 March, 1904, p. 1.
Wood, Larry. “It’s All in the Past: ‘The Missouri Kid’.” The Rolla Daily News – Rolla, MO, The Rolla Daily News – Rolla, MO, 6 Feb. 2016, www.therolladailynews.com/article/20160205/NEWS/160209301.
On November 20, 1885, former East St. Louis mayor John B. Bowman was gunned down as he crossed the street to his home. neighbors soon discovered his body. The shooter had disappeared, and the crime remains unsolved to this day. In this episode of Fact or Fiction, I identify potential suspects and motives. Who and why would someone want to kill the 51-year-old prominent politician of the large riverside city? As always, what we’ll learn about the facts is stranger than fiction.
“The Bowman Murder.” St. Louis Daily Globe-Democrat, 12 Feb. 1887.
“Across the Creek.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1 Aug. 1878.
“All Serene.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 3 July 1878.
“Arthur Arbuthnt.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 21 Sept. 1886.
“At It Again.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 30 July 1878.
“Beaten, But By Whom?” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 31 Aug. 1888.
“Belleville: Evidence Accumaleted.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 26 Feb. 1887.
“Belleville: The Bowman Murder Trial Goes Over to April 11.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 24 Mar. 1887.
“A Bloody Crime: Ex-Mayor John B. Bowman of East St. Louis Cruelly Assissinated .” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 21 Nov. 1885.
“The Bowman Murder, Another East St. Louis Policeman Arrested.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 23 Feb. 1887.
“The Bowman Murder.” St. Louis Daily Globe-Democrat, 12 Feb. 1887.
“The Bowman Murder: Strange Confession.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 14 Sept. 1886.
“Bowman’s Assassin: No Trace.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 23 Nov. 1885.
“East St. Louis.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 20 Feb. 1890.
“East St. Louis: John B. Bowman at Last Steps Down and Out.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 3 Apr. 1879.
“East St. Louis: Sensational Damage Suit.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 19 Jan. 1888.
“East St. Lousi 1865 – 1915.” St. Louis Daily Globe-Democrat, 4 Apr. 1915.
“A Family Slander Case.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 16 Sept. 1890.
“Frank B. Bowman Dies.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 17 July 1935.
“He Is Not Wanted.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 6 Oct. 1890.
“History .” Early History of East St. Louis and Cahokia, www.museum.state.il.us/RiverWeb/landings/Ambot/Archives/fwp/EarlyHistory.html.
“In Court.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 23 Feb. 1892.
Keen, Tomas, et al. “Illinois Town of 26,000 Has Nation’s Highest Murder Rate.” The Crime Report, 21 Aug. 2019, thecrimereport.org/2019/04/24/e-st-louis-il-has-the-nations-highest-murder-rate/.
Kirchherr, Jim, director. East St. Louis: Made in the USA. KETC Channel 9, 2003, www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqiJrJPOJKw.
“Mayor Bowman’s Will.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 20 Jan. 1886.
“The Prisoners Discharged.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1887.
Theising, Andrew J., and Debra H. Moore. Made in USA: East St. Louis, the Rise and Fall of an Industrial River Town. Virginia Publishing, 2003.
“A Truce.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 26 July 1878.
“Young People Saw Ghost.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 4 Apr. 1901.
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, more commonly referred to as the St. Louis World’s Fair, opened its gates on May 1, 1904 and throughout its seven months of life, entertained approximately 20 million visitors. It was a remarkable event, and its impact on St. Louis and the world is felt to this day. Cotton candy, private automobiles, x-ray machines, and other technologies debuted at the fair. Forest Park and Washington University in St. Louis still retain remnants of the exposition, although most of the impressively elaborate buildings were disposable and are no longer standing.
Today’s episode starts by considering at a tragedy at the fair, the infant incubator exhibit, and then to lighten the tone we will delve into some of the crazier aspects of the 1904 Summer Olympic Games held in conjunction with the fair.
Join me and my friend Sheri as she tries to distinguish between Fact or Fiction!
1904 World’s Fair: Looking Back at Looking Forward, mohistory.org/exhibitsLegacy/Fair/WF/HTML/Overview/page3.html.
“Character of the World’s Fair Is Outlined.” The St. Louis Republic, 10 July 1901, p. 2.
“Cost 50 Million Dollars.” The Kansas City Star, 30 Apr. 1904, p. 2.
Death at the Fair, atthefair.homestead.com/Misc/DeathATtheFair.html.
Fischel, S. “What Becomes of the Incubator Babies.” St. Louis Star-Times, 4 Sept. 1910, p. 29.
Godson, Helen. “Where Babies Are Made Strong by Artificial Means.” The Washington Times, 2 Oct. 1904, p. 9.
“History of the Fair.” At the Fair, atthefair.homestead.com/HOF.html.
“Louisiana Purchase Exposition Ground Plan.” The Democratic Advocate, 22 Mar. 1902, p. 4.
“Olympic Games This Week.” The Kansas City Star, 24 Aug. 1904, p. 11.
“Olympic Marathon Race.” The Times, 31 Aug. 1904, p. 4.
Otoole, Sean. “Story of South Africa’s First Black Olympians Keeps Us Guessing.” The Mail & Guardian, 7 July 2016, mg.co.za/article/2016-07-07-00-story-of-south-africas-first-black-olympians-keeps-us-guessing/.
Palaces- Main Page, atthefair.homestead.com/Palaces.html.
“St. Louis Fair Opened in Presence of a Quarter Million People.” San Francisco Chronicle, 1 May 1904, p. 33.
“ST. LOUIS, U.S.A. 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition.” St. Louis World’s Fair 1904, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, americasbesthistory.com/wfstlouis1904.html.
Sultan, Aisha. “Secrets, Scandals and Little-Known Stories about the 1904 World’s Fair.” STLtoday.com, 13 Oct. 2019, www.stltoday.com/lifestyles/secrets-scandals-and-little-known-stories-about-the-1904-worlds-fair/collection_8dd7c5e9-7bb0-51c9-8da8-40822ab2c64e.html.
“The World’s Fair Formally Opened.” The Semi-Weekly New Era, 4 May 1904, p. 3.
Wadsworth, Kimberly. “Relics of the World’s Fair: St. Louis.” Atlas Obscura, Atlas Obscura, 19 Feb. 2014, www.atlasobscura.com/articles/relics-of-the-worlds-fair-st-louis-missouri.
SPECIAL CORRECTION: In this episode, I mistakenly said that the Louisiana Purchase was the U.S.’s purchase of all the land EAST of the Mississippi River. This is 100% wrong! I admit I am directionally challenged–don’t even ask my kids how hard it was for me to navigate London–but even I know that the Louisiana Purchase was the U.S.’s purchase of all the land WEST of the Mississippi River! Sorry if this caused any confusion.
In May 1903, a shabbily dressed old man checked himself into a St. Louis hospital claiming that “the only poor thing about me is my health.” Doctors weren’t sure what to make of this unusual patient who soon died with no mourners at his bedside. Francis J. Tumblety was indeed a wealthy man, a well-known “herb doctor” who had traveled extensively, been arrested for potential involvement in Lincoln’s assassination, and was widely known to be a potential suspect in the Jack the Ripper slayings of 1888. Join us as we examine the fascinating and eccentric character of Dr. Francis J. Tumblety, whose life is truly stranger than fiction.
“Always a Mystery.” The San Francisco Examiner, 19 Nov. 1888, p. 1.
“Arrested on Suspicion.” Evening Star, 19 Nov. 1888, p. 5.
“A Big Haul by Thieves.” St. Louis Daily Globe-Democrat, 19 Apr. 1891, p. 5.
“Doctor Tumblety Arrested.” The Republic, 20 Nov. 1890, p. 1.
Dresbold, Michelle. “New Handwriting Evidence May Identify ‘Ripper’.” Pacific Daily News, 22 Nov. 2009, p. 15.
Holleman, Joe. “Did Jack the Ripper Have Ties to St. Louis?” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 4 Nov. 2001, p. 151.
“The Indian Herb Doctor Again.” The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 19 June 1865, p. 2.
“The Indian Herb Doctor. More About Him. Full Particulars of His Arrest at St. Louis.” The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 10 May 1865, p. 11.
“Jack the Ripper’s Eternal Resting Place in U.S.” The News Leader, 8 Nov. 2002, p. 9.
“Left Estate of $100,000.” Dakota Farmers’ Leader, 5 June 1903.
“Missing Tumblety.” Democrat and Chronicle, 3 Dec. 1888, p. 8.
“News to the Afflicted.” The Gazette, 12 Dec. 1857, p. 2.
“Personal Ad.” The Pittsburgh Daily Commercial, 17 Apr. 1872, p. 1.
Pitcher, John. “A Ripping Yarn.” Democrat and Chronicle, 31 Oct. 2002, p. 15.
Riordan, Timothy B. Prince of Quacks: the Notorious Life of Dr. Francis Tumblety, Charlatan and Jack the Ripper Suspect. McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2009.
“Root of Bitter Fight.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 28 June 1903, p. 14.
“Testimonials.” The Gazette, 28 Sept. 1857, p. 6.
Tremeear, Janice. Wicked St. Louis. History Press, 2011.
“Tumblety Turns Up.” The News, 4 Dec. 1888, p. 3.
“‘Dr.” Tumblety. A Mountebank Not Unknown in Buffalo Comes to Grief.” The Buffalo Commercial, 6 Apr. 1881, p. 2. “‘Jack the Ripper’ an American?” Chicago Tribune, 18 July 1995, p. 15.
In the early 1920’s a group of inmates from the Jefferson City State Penitentiary, the prison’s Peaceful Village Band, used their musical talents to rise to national fame. Some of the members leveraged this notoriety to shorten their sentences. Today’s episode of Fact or Fiction looks at these men who’d been incarcerated in Missouri’s only maximum security prison for crimes varying from check fraud to murder. Test your wits with my guest, Paul Holzen a music teacher and musician, to see if you can find the fiction within the facts. Listen carefully, because it’s more difficult than you think to distinguish between Fact or Fiction.
“Advertisement.” Sioux City Journal, 1 Dec. 1927, p. 2.
“Beneath the Star of Tragedy.” The Bridgeport Times and Evening Farmer, 19 Jan. 1917, p. 22.
“Chance Knocked at Prisoner’s Cell Door.” The Lancaster Sunday News, 1 Mar. 1925, p. 25.
“Combs Runs for Council.” Sioux City Journal, 18 Oct. 1959, p. 30.
“Convict Entertainer Receives Many Gifts.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 17 Dec. 1924, p. 12.
“Convict Who Won Radio Fame as Pianist Dies.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2 Sept. 1937, p. 13.
“Credit Men Elect Directors; Adjourn for Summer Season.” Sioux City Journal, 26 May 1944, p. 14.
“Digging Coal to Prison Tempo.” Google Books, Google, books.google.com/books?id=7xkgAQAAMAAJ&pg=RA4-PA45&lpg=RA4-PA45&dq=missouri%2BWOS%2Bradio%2Bprison%2Bband&source=bl&ots=IjwnTl6yRA&sig=ACfU3U3G7Q7foFCrmyQrIHgmoLmAiExu0w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjLhqXU4JXoAhWLZM0KHTe9DvsQ6AEwB3oECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=missouri%20WOS%20radio%20prison%20band&f=false.
“Freedom.” The Missourinet Blog, 2 Feb. 2017, blog.missourinet.com/harry-snodgrass/freedom/.
“French Slips Past Guard at the Jail.” Jefferson City Daily Capital News, 8 Sept. 1926, p. 1.
“Governor Hyde Freed Leader of Prison Band Yesterday.” Jefferson City Daily Capital News, 31 July 1924, p. 1.
“Harry Snodgrass, Radio Star, Opens His Own Road Show.” Wausau Daily Herald, 6 July 1925, p. 9.
“Head of Prison Band Looks Ahead to His Freedom.” Jefferson City Daily Capital News, 27 June 1923, p. 1.
“Hung Jury Likely in Trial of Woman.” The Cape County Herald, 27 July 1917, p. 1.
“Hung Jury Likely in Trial of Woman.” The Weekly Tribune, 27 July 1917, p. 1.
“Life Termer in State Prison Be Given Freedom.” The Sedalia Democrat, 18 July 1923, p. 1.
“Local Penitentiary Bandmaster Now In Texas Prison2.” Jefferson City Daily Capital News, 2 Dec. 1926, p. 1.
“Missouri Convict Wins Radio Popularity Contest.” The Daily Post-Dispatch, 5 Oct. 1924, p. 5.
“Missouri Convict Wins Radio Popularity Contest.” The Saint Louis Post-Dispatch, 25 Oct. 1924.
“Musical America.” Google Books, Google, books.google.com/books?id=jGdJAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA98&lpg=PA98&dq=missouri%2Bprison%2Bstate%2Borchestra&source=bl&ots=xZz89kIOtD&sig=ACfU3U3EPO2BvoM5NtSHl8Lv-4L4K4DW-w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiLuYjO-I3oAhVnhq0KHfIHBM0Q6AEwDXoECA0QAQ#v=onepage&q=missouri%20prison%20state%20orchestra&f=false.
“Musical Messenger.” Google Books, Google, books.google.com/books?id=pwNDAQAAMAAJ&pg=RA2-PA31&lpg=RA2-PA31&dq=virgil%2Bw%2Bcombs%2Bmissouri&source=bl&ots=7GL92pGKaJ&sig=ACfU3U3Ck464u8sRr1yNxXvyMuvekPjVlg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiXjfKt253oAhVMHM0KHYIeDzkQ6AEwBXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=virgil%20w%20combs%20missouri&f=false.
Pogue, Samantha. “Filmmaker Plans to Make Third Movie in Capital City.” Newstribune.com, 23 Aug. 2018, www.newstribune.com/news/features/story/2018/aug/23/filmmaker-plans-to-make-third-movie-in-capital-city/740083/.
“Prison Band to Give Concert at State Park Sunday.” Jefferson City Daily Capital News, 29 May 1925, p. 1.
St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 7 June 1926, p. 4.
“Teamster Shot as He and Musician Attempt Holdup.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 14 Apr. 1923, p. 3.
“Three O’clock in the Morning-Waltz-Harry Snodgrass : Terriss–Robledo : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming.” Internet Archive, Terriss–Robledo, archive.org/details/ThreeOclockInTheMorning-waltz-harrySnodgrass.
“Two Convicts Escape After Harding Concert.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 11 Aug. 1923, p. 3.
Winters, S. R. “The Strangest Band That Broadcasts.” Google Books, Google, books.google.com/books?id=x_nNAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA178&lpg=PA178&dq=missouri%2BWOS%2Bradio%2Bprison%2Bband&source=bl&ots=ew3I0nvfvB&sig=ACfU3U1u2QcGd1tErSSbNJn5IRYX7BNciA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjLhqXU4JXoAhWLZM0KHTe9DvsQ6AEwBnoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=missouri%20WOS%20radio%20prison%20band&f=false.
Witten, J M. “When the Prison Band Goes on at WOS.” Google Books, Google, books.google.com/books?id=a1IPAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA205&lpg=PA205&dq=missouri%2Bstate%2Bprison%2Bconcert%2Bband&source=bl&ots=nobV7ca3EB&sig=ACfU3U1FrHdYrKLEKyVWy89c7WLX9WTAeQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiL9I7m_o3oAhUOT6wKHWuRCKUQ6AEwBnoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=missouri%20state%20prison%20concert%20band&f=false.
On the evening of January 31, 1912, a St. Louis police officer noted the business of The Cowperthwait Loan Company uncharacteristically had its lights on at 7:00 p.m., well after its usual closing time. The officer entered to find a disturbing scene that would launch an investigation to find a criminal whose exploits are truly stranger than fiction. My niece, Kaitlyn, joins me to unravel the mystery of The Single Cuff Button.
Appendix to the Journals of the Senate and Assembly of the Twenty-Eighth Session of the Legislature of the State of California. State Office, J.D. Young, Supt. State Printing, 1889.
“Cheatham Diary Shows Him a Wooer at Age of 4.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 10 May 1912.
“Cheatham Jests as Confession Is Read.” St. Louis Daily Globe-Democrat, 8 Mar. 1912.
“Cheatham Made Will Before Killing.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 8 Mar. 1912.
“Cheatham Pleads Guilty to Wurzburger Murder.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 14 Oct. 1912.
“Cheatham’s Confession of the Wurzburger Killing.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 8 Mar. 1912.
“Cheatham Pleads Guilty to Wurzburger Murder.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 14 Oct. 1912.
“Cheatham Weds Widow, Who Posed As His Sister.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 24 May 1922.
“J. Wurzburger, 75, Once a Power in City Politics, Dies.” St. Louis Star-Times, 16 Nov. 1933.
“Jewelers Condemn Release of Cheatham.” St. Loåuis Post-Dispatch, 26 May 1922.
“Killed Man to Rob Him; Freed After Ten Years.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 17 May 1922.
“Lawyer Hired for Cheatham; Plea May Be Insanity.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 11 Mar. 1912.
Morrow, Jason L. O’Sullivan, Dalton. Vintage True Crime Stories Vol I: An Illustrated Anthology of Forgotten Cases of Murder & Mayhem . Historical Crime Detective Publishing. Kindle Edition.
“Pawnshop Slayer Pleads Not Guilty.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 19 Mar. 1912.
“Pawnshop Slayer Would End Life.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 14 Mar. 1912.
“Police In Fear Cheatham Will Not Be Caught.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 4 Mar. 1912.
“S. A. Cheatham Is Being Hunted in Pawnshop Killing.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2 Mar. 1912.
“Sailor’s Knot Clew to Pawn Shop Suspect.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 3 Mar. 1912.
“Watches Worth $4000 Part of Pawnshop Loot.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 3 Feb. 1912.
Bertha was a matronly lady who devoted herself to her sick neighbors out of the goodness or her heart, or did she have another motive? Listen carefully, because it’s more difficult than you think to distinguish between Fact or Fiction.
“12 Female Poisoners Who Killed With Arsenic.” Mental Floss, 12 Dec. 2015, www.mentalfloss.com/article/72351/12-female-poisoners-who-killed-arsenic.
Bloody Island was a sandbar located in the Mississippi River between St. Louis, Missouri, and East St. Louis, Illinois. During the 1800’s, it technically didn’t belong to either state, so men traveled there to settle disputes without the interference of the law. Believe it or not, many of these duels were between the movers and shakers and great politicians of the era. Today, Fact or Fiction takes a look at a few of the most famous of these duels. As always, the facts are stranger than the fiction, so listen carefully!
“Bloody Island.” The Stack County News, 7 May 1875.
“Days of Dueling in Old St. Louis.” St. Louis Daily Globe-Democrat, 23 Apr. 1911.
“The Ghosts of Bloody Island.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 19 July 1897.
Baldwin, Carl. “Bloody Island: St. Louis Dueling Ground.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 4 Mar. 1975, pp. 31.
Bassford, Homer. “Robert E. Lee, as Army Engineer, Kept the Mississippi From Shifting Its Channel Away From St. Louis.” The St. Louis Star and Times, 13 May 1933, pp. 9.